Graphene Batteries: How They Work and What They Mean for the Future

June 25, 2022
12 min read

What is a graphene battery?

Graphene batteries are a new type of rechargeable battery that uses graphene instead of traditional materials like lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, zinc-air, or lead-acid. Supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries can utilize graphene’s unique properties to store energy.

Graphene was synthesized on copper foil with methane gas using chemical vapor deposition. This graphene was then used to create a battery with electrodes made of carbon fiber paper. One watt-hour of energy can be stored per gram of graphene in this battery.

How does graphene improve batteries?

Graphene’s ability to conduct electricity means that it can be used in place of other electrode materials. It also allows for greater charge capacity than traditional materials because graphene has a large surface area. The researchers believe these two factors will enable them to build more robust, longer-lasting batteries.

What are some applications for graphene batteries?

The use of graphene in solar cells and water filtration systems is already well established. However, they are still in the process of being explored as a potential replacement for lithium-ion batteries. The electric car would be an obvious application. A vehicle powered by a graphene battery could travel further on each charge and release little emissions into the air compared to one with a conventional battery.

Graphene vs. lithium-ion


  • Lithium-ion batters are a thin, porous slip of polypropylene that keeps the electrodes from touching.
  • The lithium-ion battery can store up to 180Wh per kilogram of weight.
  • There are safety concerns about lithium-ion batteries. In the case of a breach in the separator between electrodes, the electrodes are brought into contact, causing very rapid heating and explosive results.
  • Lithium-ion batteries are known for their high weight-to-capacity ratio.


  • In graphene batteries, one electrode is replaced by a hybrid composite material containing graphene.
  • Graphene is capable of storing up to 1,000Wh per kilogram.
  • Batteries made of graphene have an electrode and a composite material that includes graphene. Even if the electrodes come in contact, there is no explosion. 
  • Graphene as a material is extremely lightweight.

How graphene can change the Battery Industry

Graphene is a good choice due to its excellent electrical conductivity, thermal stability, mechanical strength, and lightweight. In addition, graphene has the potential to replace the current materials in Li-Ion Batteries.

Batteries are just beginning to use graphene. One of the biggest challenges is the cost of making thin graphene sheets. However, the possibilities of graphene applications will grow as production processes become more refined and cost-effective. 

Graphene is most promising when combined with lithium-ion batteries. A graphene electrode and anode are incorporated into the battery to accomplish this. The anode is where the energy enters the battery, and the cathode is where it leaves. Most resistance and heat are generated at the cathode and anode. As a result, more power can be transferred faster and safer with an increase in conductivity and a decrease in resistance. 

Many large companies, including Tesla Motors, Samsung, and Microsoft, are showing great interest in graphene batteries. As a result, we can expect the development of new technologies to accelerate as interest and funding for graphene grow.

What graphene batteries mean for smartphones

In a way, graphene has already made its way into the smartphone market. For example, the Huawei Mate 20 X, below, and Mate 30 Pro incorporate a graphene film into their cooling system, which drastically reduces heat even when used for heavy gaming – one of the other benefits of the material.

However, the first fully graphene-powered smartphone is heavily rumored to be coming from Samsung, possibly in its Galaxy line of flagship phones. As the Korean company has already pioneered graphene in lithium-ion batteries to improve performance and charging speeds, this is not surprising. 

While graphene is unlikely to be widespread in the next year, the promise of its many wonders looks set to arrive soon. It could mark a serious step forward for mobile technology and other sectors.

What are the challenges associated with graphene batteries?

Traditional conductive carbon/graphite is very cheap. While graphene is too expensive that small businesses cannot afford it. A few years ago, graphene was far more expensive than gold and unbearable for ordinary consumers.

Commercial manufacturing of graphene requires a massive volume of graphene sheets to be extracted, which is extremely hard. The extracted material would also consist of some impurities/ defects. For now, it is too expensive to produce a defect-free graphene sheet. One gram of graphene would cost around USD 100. 

Frequently Asked Questions about Graphene Battery

Are graphene batteries possible?

Graphene is a form of carbon stronger than steel yet lighter than aluminum. Because of these properties, researchers believe graphene could replace metal in batteries. However, graphene is still too expensive for widespread use.

Are graphene batteries better than lithium?

The average capacity of graphene batteries is much greater than that of lithium-ion batteries, even when they are smaller. For example, lithium-ion batteries have a capacity of 180Wh per kilogram, but graphene can store 1,000Wh per kilogram, making it a much more space-efficient energy storage system.

What is the problem with graphene batteries?

The biggest problem with graphene batteries is the lack of feasible techniques for the mass production of high-quality graphene limits their potential for practical use.

Are graphene batteries commercially available?

Although the use of graphene batteries in EVs is currently possible, they are not yet available commercially as more research is required to develop mass production techniques and to further determine the practical abilities of the material.

How soon will graphene batteries be available?

Among the different graphene-based battery technologies and types, graphene lithium-ion batteries are expected to be implemented in the next 1-3 years, solid-state batteries within the next 4-8 years, and graphene supercapacitors within 10 years.

How long can a graphene battery last?

Graphene batteries generally last longer than traditional lithium-ion batteries.

Is Tesla using graphene?

Tesla is not using graphene yet. But, The worldwide popularity of Tesla offerings such as the Model 3 sedan has been good news for important battery metals such as lithium, graphite, and cobalt.

How much does a graphene battery cost?

Graphene batteries cost somewhere between $50-$100. You can check the pricing on amazon.

Who makes graphene batteries?

Some of the major companies in the graphene battery market are Samsung Electronics, Huawei, Log 9 Materials, Cabot Corporation, Graphenano, Nanotech Energy, NANOTEK INSTRUMENTS, INC, XG Sciences, ZEN Graphene Solutions Ltd., GrapheneCA , Global Graphene Group, Vorbeck, Graphenea, Hybrid Kinetic Group Ltd., and Targray.

Is graphene the best battery?

Graphene aluminum-ion batteries can become the primary EV battery in the future as graphene aluminum cells can charge 60 times faster compared to lithium-ion cells, and hold significantly more energy than pure aluminum cells.

Are graphene batteries recyclable?

The graphene-based batteries are 100% recyclable. Renewable energy – and rooftop solar in particular – needs effective batteries to keep growing.

Who is the leader in graphene technology?

The Canadian corporation NanoXplore led the market for graphene producing companies worldwide as of May 2021, with an estimated market capitalization of 428 million U.S. dollars at that time, which was around 85 million U.S. dollars more than the next ranked leading company.

Who is the largest graphene producer?

Japanese giant Daikin Industries Ltd. has become a shareholder of the world’s largest producer of graphene nanotubes, OCSiAl, following three years of collaboration in developing graphene nanotube applications as a next-generation additive.

What is the future of graphene?

Graphene has a unique molecular composition which could make it one of the smallest and most useful filters! Researchers are hoping to develop a way of using graphene to filter seawater into drinking water. This could potentially provide drinking water to millions around the world and even save lives.

Can graphene stop a bullet?

Researchers from Rice University found that 300 layers of graphene – which is, after all, at most 100nm thick – were capable of stopping such micro bullets entirely.

Can graphene be used in solar panels?

The use of graphene in solar panels is not new, as it was created as a non-reflective covering for solar cells. Since researchers are pushing graphene’s capabilities to gather energy from renewable sources, they have been able to generate thousands of microvolts while achieving a solar panel efficiency of 6.53 percent.

Why is graphene not used for armor?

There are applications where graphene would work, but due to its cost, it is not feasible. As technology advances in the production of high quality one atom thick layers of graphene, the costs will likely go down, and it will be used for a much wider range of applications.

Can I buy a graphene battery?

Although solid-state graphene batteries are still years away, graphene-enhanced lithium batteries are already on the market. 

Are graphene batteries rechargeable?

Yes, graphene, that miracle material that has long promised to change the world, allows this 10,000mAh portable battery to charge from zero to full in less than 30 minutes, about five to six times faster than a conventional power bank of the same capacity.

Why is no one using graphene?

Easiest answer is that it is not easy to produce graphene in large qualities at a decent quality. The very definition of graphene is a single layer of graphite. Extremely difficult to manufacture in large quantities.

Why is graphene toxic?

The results of these studies suggest that graphene nanostructures such as graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide, have the capacity to induce toxicity in mammals both as a function of their chemistry, by inducing oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, and as a result of their aggregation causing physical blockages.

Is graphene a failure?

Graphene is not a failure. It has actually opened a wide range of possibilities for the battery industry.

Is graphene harmful to the human body?

Concentration. Numerous results have shown that graphene materials cause dose-dependent toxicity in animals and cells, such as liver and kidney injury, lung granuloma formation, decreased cell viability, and cell apoptosis.

What is graphene made of?

Graphene, a two-dimensional form of crystalline carbon, is either a single layer of carbon atoms forming a honeycomb (hexagonal) lattice or several coupled layers of this honeycomb structure.

Is graphene flammable?

Graphene’s extremely high flammability has been an obstacle to further development and commercialization. However, this new discovery makes it possible to mass-produce graphene and graphene membranes to improve a host of products, from fuel cells to solar cells to supercapacitors and sensors.

Is graphene stronger than titanium?

At 1.5 GPa, copper-graphene is about 50% stronger than titanium, or about three times as strong as structural aluminum alloys.

What temperature does graphene burn?

Graphene has a high specific surface area of ca. 1168 m2 g–1 and starts to burn at 350 °C because of a large interlayer spacing of graphene sheets (i.e., 5.1 Å). Show activity on this post. Graphene is made from carbon atoms, just like diamond and graphite.

Is graphene waterproof?

It is elastic and flexible, graphene also has great electrical and thermal conductivity. This allows for heat dissipation and withstanding intense electrical currents without heating. It is virtually transparent, waterproof and so dense that not even helium can pass through it.

Can a sword be made of graphene?

A sword made of graphene would flop over. Unless you make it thicker than one layer. Then it’d be graphite. And that sword would suck.

Does graphene dissolve in water?

Graphene won’t dissolve in water or organic solvents. It only disperses in solvents. Pure or pristine graphene displays poor dispersion due to the strong van der waals force of attraction. Functionalization of graphene (GO or rGO) is the only option to disperse in water or some solvents.

Does graphene resist heat?

Graphene is considered an excellent heat conductor, and several studies have found it to have unlimited potential for heat conduction based on the size of the sample, contradicting the law of thermal conduction (Fourier’s law) in the micrometer scale.

Is graphene stable?

Ab initio calculations show that a graphene sheet is thermodynamically unstable if its size is less than about 20 nm and becomes the most stable fullerene (as within graphite) only for molecules larger than 24,000 atoms.

Where can I find graphene?

It is produced from graphite which we find in the center of pencils, except that Graphene consists of a single layer of carbon atoms.

How much weight can graphene hold?

Perfect graphene can take about 100 Gigapascals (14 million pounds per square inch) of force before it breaks. But the imperfect graphene the researchers made can withstand only a tiny fraction of that, about 4 Megapascals (580 pounds per square inch).

How can we make a graphene battery at home?

To create a pure graphene-based electrode, disperse graphene oxide powder (100 mg) in distilled water (30 mL) and sonicate for 30 minutes. Heat the resulting suspension on a hot plate until it reaches 100 °C and add hydrazine hydrate (3 mL). Keep the suspension at 98 °C for 24 h to reduce the graphene oxide to rGO.

Is it easy to break graphene?

Zhu, working with Jun Lou at Rice, found that graphene with cracks is 10 times more prone to breakage than steel, and closer in fracture toughness to aluminum oxide or silicon carbide-based ceramics. The relatively low fracture toughness means that it takes only a small crack in a piece of graphene to weaken it.

Is there anything stronger than graphene?

Borophene turns out to be stronger than graphene, and more flexible. It a good conductor of both electricity and heat, and it also superconducts.

Will graphene replace lithium?

The traditional lithium-ion battery could soon be replaced in electric cars by a new generation made from graphene. This material has many qualities. In particular, it should allow the battery to be recharged much more rapidly than today.

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